Some Medications and Treatments used in the Dart Frog Hobby

Have a sick Dart Frog? Preventative, Treatments, Methods and Medicines.
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Philsuma
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Some Medications and Treatments used in the Dart Frog Hobby

Postby Philsuma » Mon Feb 28, 2011 8:08 pm

Various commonly used Medications and treatments for the Dendrobatid frog hobby

and as always....I'm not a Vet or Medical Expert so all information here should not be taken as medical advice or used without consulting a Vet or Dr.

Metronidazole (Flagyl) is an antibiotic effective against anaerobic bacteria and certain parasites. Anaerobic bacteria are single-celled, living organisms that thrive in environments in which there is little oxygen (anaerobic environments) and can cause disease in the abdomen (bacterial peritonitis), liver (liver abscess), and pelvis (abscess of the ovaries and the Fallopian tubes). Giardia lamblia and amoeba are intestinal parasites that can cause abdominal pain and diarrhea ). Metronidazole selectively blocks some of the functions within the bacterial cells and the parasites resulting in their death. Helps increase appetite in frogs as well.

Silver sulfadiazine (Silvadene) is a sulfa derivative topical antibacterial used primarily as a topical burn cream and with lesions, but it may also be used to stimulate skin growth with omphaloceles. The cream is kept applied to the burned skin at all times, for the duration of the healing period or until a graft is applied. It prevents the growth of a wide array of bacteria, as well as yeast, on the damaged skin. Silver sulfadiazine is typically delivered in a 1% solution suspended in a water-soluble base. The chemical itself is poorly soluble, and has only very limited penetration through the skin. Only when applied to very large area burns is absorption into the body generally a problem.
It is also helpful on other shallow, large-area wounds such as abrasions.
Well-known proprietary brand names are Silvadene and Flamazine. The medication is also marketed under Kendall as Thermazene, with the aforementioned silvadene still functioning as a generic trademark.

Enrofloxacin (Baytril) Until sulfa drugs came on the scene in the 1940s, our efforts to combat bacterial infection were largely ineffective. As different antibiotics were developed, different types of bacteria were conquered, yet one bacterial species remained seemingly invincible: Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Eventually antibiotics (the aminoglycoside class) were developed that could kill Pseudomonas but they were available only as injectable products and they had potential to cause significant kidney damage if used too long. With these kinds of side effects and the ability to treat Pseudomonas limited to hospitalized patients (where injections could be given regularly), the battle with Pseudomonas was far from won.

A major breakthrough was the development of the fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics (including enrofloxacin, its counterpart for human use ciprofloxacin, and several others). These medications are active against many bacterial types including Pseudomonas. They are available as tablets and are not associated with the serious side effects that plagued the aminoglycoside group. Fluoroquinolones act by deactivating bacterial enzymes necessary for the transcription of DNA. DNA is tightly coiled in order to fit inside a cell. Segments to be used must be uncoiled by an enzyme called DNA gyrase. The fluoroquinolone antibiotic deactivates DNA gyrase making the reading of DNA impossible. The bacterial cell dies. Mammalian DNA gyrase is of a completely different shape and remains unharmed.
This medication may be used in either dogs or cats to combat different types of infections, especially those involving Pseudomonas. Enrofloxacin is also active against Staphylococci, and thus is commonly used for skin infections.

Fenbendazole (Panacur)The care of animals has always included the management of internal parasites. As technology has progressed, the medications developed have become broader in the spectrum of parasites they can eradicate. Fenbendazole is a member of the benzimidizole group of anti-parasite medications which makes it a relatively broad spectrum product.
Fenbendazole (often abbreviated “FBZ”) is used in both large and small animals. It is useful against roundworms, hookworms, and the more difficult to treat whipworms. It is effective against the Taenia species of tapeworm but not against the Common tapeworm, Dipylidium caninum. It is also effective against giardia (an intestinal protozoan which is contagious to both humans and pets) as well as several species of lungworm and even some flukes.
When a pet has a chronic diarrhea and a cause cannot be found through testing, it is common to have the animal take fenbendazole for several days in a row as a general broad spectrum dewormer with the idea that most parasites of significance will be removed by such treatment even if they have escaped detection by testing.
You just dust the flies with it, typically just once a week for a 4 week period.

Sulfadimethoxine(Albon)A medication manufactured by Pfizer Animal Health in the form of an oral suspension, tablet or bolus. The active ingredient is sulfadimethoxine. Albon is used to treat certain parasitic infections, primarily coccidia, in domestic animals.

Levamisole (Ergamisol, HCl salt) Levamisole is an antibiotic belonging to a class of synthetic imidazothiazole derivatives.It was originally used as an antihelminthic to treat worm infestations in both humans and animals. Most commercial preparations are intended for veterinary use as a dewormer for cattle, pigs, and sheep. However, it has also gained prominence among aquarists as an effective treatment for Camallanus roundworm infestations in freshwater tropical fish.

Ivermectin (Ivomec, Stromectol,Heartgard, Iverhart Plus,Tri heart -Plus & Acarexxa)In the mid-1980's, ivermectin was introduced as probably the most broad-spectrum anti-parasite medication ever. It is effective against most common intestinal worms (except tapeworms), most mites, and some lice. It is not effective against fleas, ticks, flies, or flukes. It is effective against larval heartworms (the "microfilariae" that circulate in the blood) but not against adult heartworms (that live in the heart and pulmonary
arteries), though technically it can shorten their lifespan.

Calcium Gluconate Calcium Gluconate is a mineral supplement. It is the form of calcium most widely used in the treatment of hypocalcemia. Calcium Gluconate contains 9.3% calcium. It is also used to counteract an overdose of magnesium sulfate, excess magnesium sulfate can cause respiratory depression, for which calcium Guconate would be the antidote. Use in the tropical frog hobby to counteract seizures, mainly in WC pumilio or frogs that have poor diets with low calcium levels.

Formalin Formalin is a saturated solution of formaldehyde, water, and typically another agent, most commonly methanol. In its typical form, formalin is 37% formaldehyde by weight (40% by volume), 6-13% methanol, and the rest water. Formaldehyde provides the disinfectant and bacteriacide/germacide effects of formalin. The water content of formalin provides a dilution of formaldehyde. And the methanol content stabilizes the naturally chemically unstable formaldehyde compound.

Formaldehyde (HCHO) belongs to a class of organic compounds called aldehydes, which are all obtained from the oxidation of alcohol, the most common being methyl alcohol (2CH2OH). During the oxidation process from methyl alcohol to formaldehyde, a certain level of formic acid is produced and will be found in formaldehyde solutions. It is important to note the presence of formic acid as this is a blistering agent most commonly associated with red or fire ants. Further, since formaldehyde is basically unstable in its basic compound form, further oxidation even in storage is possible, thus producing additional levels of formic acid. To help stabilize formaldehyde, methanol is added to the dilute formaldehyde solution formalin. It is very important to note that the formalin compound readily available as a treatment for fish is the EXACT and same compound used in embalming practices. And there is significant irony in this as discussed further below.

Formaldehyde is also highly soluble in water and as such, does not separate or degenerate in water-based solutions. This is one of the main reasons why water is most commonly used to dilute formaldehyde into the common formalin compound. Additional reasons for using water in the formalin compound include cost and the ability of water to mix with other chemical agents readily. This point will have more relevance when discussing the combined use of formalin and salt in fish treatments.

While formaldehyde is a potent disinfectant and anti-bacterial agent, it is essentially ineffective as a fungicide, insecticide, or larvaecide. This is an important point to remember when considering formalin in the treatment of fish. While formalin will work for such problems as gill flukes, surface infections, and other parasites, it will NOT work on argulus, fish lice, and other macro-parasites that we associate with treatments requiring organophosphates, such as dimlin. Nor will formalin be effective against mold and fungus-related problems, such as saprolegnia.

But before you go thinking formalin is an ideal anti-bacterial treatment; first consider how formaldehyde “kills.” Unlike most anti-bacterial and germicidal agents which poison the bacteria and germ cells, formaldehyde kills cell tissue by dehydrating the tissue and bacteria cells and replacing the normal fluid in the cells with a gel-like rigid compound. The latter effect exhibits the coagulation properties of formaldehyde. Tissue and bacterium cells are made of protoplasm and as such, contain large amounts of moisture. The introduction of formaldehyde into the tissue dries out the protoplasm and destroys the cell. In terms of embalming practices, this is a perfect situation as the formaldehyde not only disinfects the tissue but replaces the tissue cell moisture with a rigid gel thus allowing the embalmed tissue to maintain its contour. Additionally, the “new” cell structure will resist further bacterial attacks as its composition now contains a formaldehyde-based compound. So, while the usual list of anti-bacterial agents, such as tetracycline, amikacin, baytril, and the like poison their respective bacterial enemies and are then flushed from the system by the kidneys and liver, formalin is retained in the now altered tissue structures of the living organism.

As stated previously, formalin was originally designed for the purposes of disinfecting and preserving tissue in embalming practices. It was not originally contemplated for use in fish medicine. Since formaldehyde is highly soluble in water, this combination offered a near perfect solution for easy permeation of tissue and cell structures. This is an important point to consider when using formalin on fish as the fish will “absorb” a certain level of formalin into its tissue and cell structures just by the very nature of how fish process water in their environment. This is where the principles of osmosis are important.

Osmosis or osmotic pressure is the passage of a solvent through a membrane separating two solutions of different densities. The basic rule of osmosis is that fluids will flow from the less dense environment to the denser environment through the membrane. Using a practical example, consider the use of salt in koi ponds. Here, we need to consider the salt content of the fish itself and for koi and this level is about .9%. The pond water, on the other hand, maybe anywhere zero percent salt content up to whatever level the pond owner has manipulated it. There is much debate on the use of salt in the treatment of many koi problems. While there is no question that a salt level of .3% will effectively rid the pond and fish of most micro-parasites, it is the effect of salt on the osmotic regulation process of the fish that most ponders believe is a good stress reducing regimen. So as an example, the pond has a salt level of .15% and the fish’s level is .9%, then the osmotic pressure or flow of water is from the pond and into the fish’s body. And the same can be said for any salt level up to .9% where the equilibrium of osmotic pressures will start causing severe problems with the fish’s physiology. In fact, if the salt levels of the pond become equal to or greater than that of the fish, the fish can actually suffer dehydration as the flow of the fluids reverses based on reversed fluid densities.

But the driving factor behind the need to control osmotic regulation and relieving the fish of added stress is not specifically with the addition of salt to the water, but what happens to the “mechanics” of the water once the salt is added. As most of us remember from high school chemistry, every fluid has a surface tension

Methylene blue is used in aquaculture and by tropical fish and frog hobbyists as a treatment for fungal infections. It can also be effective in treating fish infected with ich, the parasitic protozoa Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. It is usually used to protect newly laid fish eggs from being infected by fungus or bacteria. This is useful when the hobbyist wants to artificially hatch the fish eggs. Methylene Blue is also very effective when used as part of a "medicated fish bath" for treatment of ammonia, nitrite, and cyanide poisoning as well as for topical and internal treatment of injured or sick fish as a good "first response".

Pedialyte

Amphibian Ringer's Solution
Is an isotonic solution specifically formulated for amphibians. It is applied as a soak or bath for frogs that become acutely ill. It can also be used as an initial treatment for bloat. Amphibian Ringers Solution will not cure any underlying illness, but is instead used as a supportive treatment

Amphibian Ringer's is made by thoroughly mixing the following in one liter of distilled/reverse osmosis or deionized water:
Sodium chloride (NaCl) 6.6 grams
Potassium chloride (KCl) 0.15 grams
Calcium chloride (CaCl2) 0.15 grams
Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) 0.2 grams

http://www.fishersci.com/ecomm/servlet/ ... omSearch=1

Neosporin

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Re: Some Medications and Treatments used in the Dart Frog Ho

Postby Philsuma » Mon May 30, 2011 3:34 pm

and as always....I'm not Vet or Medical Expert so the above information should not be taken as medical advice or used without consulting a Vet or Dr.

Anyone with additional information,questions, concerns or things that they see that are not accurate ect, please post here or contact me.

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Re: Some Medications and Treatments used in the Dart Frog Ho

Postby edwardsatc » Mon May 30, 2011 4:31 pm

Phil,

Does anyone actually try to use formalin/formaldehyde as a treatment? I've never heard anyone mention it.

Formalin presents multiple acute and chronic toxicity issues to both animals and humans. First and foremost, to humans it is a known carcinogen, so it should be handled with appropriate PPE. For organisms other than humans, formalin is acutely toxic to a wide variety of organisms at relatively low concentrations. For example, formalin is acutely toxic to carp at 100 ppm. This is just one example of formalin toxicity - there are hundreds of studies on formalin toxicity. There are many chronic issues with it's use ...

I deal with formalin on a daily basis and use it for the preservation of samples in the lab. I can't imagine anyone thinking that it may be an available treatment for frog issues ...

For the sake of civility - I'll pass on commenting on Panacur.

Donn

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Re: Some Medications and Treatments used in the Dart Frog Ho

Postby Philsuma » Mon May 30, 2011 5:01 pm

Good eye Donn...Formalin and Formaldehyde are listed here, not as treatments, but solely as preservation agents.

Thanks for bringing that to my attention - I'll find a edit for this thread that better explains things.

and PLEASE...feel free to comment or add much needed content to this topic. I'll make sure it stays civil and on track.

The above has been culled from the "inter-web" so it won't hurt any one's feelings to post an opinion in opposition to any of it.

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Re: Some Medications and Treatments used in the Dart Frog Ho

Postby pa.walt » Wed May 02, 2012 9:40 am

just being ignorant. read thru the list but most of the stuff i have no idea how to apply it to a frog. also how much of a pain is it to get some of the stuff. :?

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Re: Some Medications and Treatments used in the Dart Frog Ho

Postby BcsTx » Wed May 02, 2012 2:11 pm

Sulfadimethoxine(Albon)A medication manufactured by Pfizer Animal Health in the form of an oral suspension, tablet or bolus. The active ingredient is sulfadimethoxine. Albon is used to treat certain parasitic infections, primarily coccidia, in domestic animals.


Actually, Albon when given to frogs with coccidia puts it in remission(stops the frog from shedding it) there is no cure for coccidia in darts,in order to keep it in remission, it needs to be given to the frog for the rest of its life.
Also, when on Albon will test negative for coccidia but will show on a necropsy.

I purchased an emergency kit from Dr. Frye, if something comes up I e-mail him with pics and he advises me how to medicate.
Other Herp vets may do this as well, IMO a good thing to have on hand.
Like Phil said all treatments should be administered per a Vets recommendation.
-Beth

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Re: Some Medications and Treatments used in the Dart Frog Ho

Postby Philsuma » Sat Dec 01, 2012 5:54 pm

Calcium Gluconate Calcium Gluconate is a mineral supplement. It is the form of calcium most widely used in the treatment of hypocalcemia. Calcium Gluconate contains 9.3% calcium. It is also used to counteract an overdose of magnesium sulfate, excess magnesium sulfate can cause respiratory depression, for which calcium Guconate would be the antidote. Use in the tropical frog hobby to counteract seizures, mainly in WC pumilio or frogs that have poor diets with low calcium levels.

This product can be purchased on eBay (be careful of freshness) as well as local "Agriculture stores" - for horses and farm animals.

Be aware of the sealed liquid bottle and try to obtain a product that is LESS than a year old. It's moderately expensive for it's size and comes in larger 6-8 oz bottles.

It also needs to be WATERED DOWN / diluted to @ 10%. And can be applied as a soak or dropped on the animal dorsally.

As always..I'm not a Vet and the above advice is not medical advice.

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Re: Some Medications and Treatments used in the Dart Frog Ho

Postby Judy S » Wed Jan 16, 2013 12:32 pm

edwardsatc wrote:Phil,

Does anyone actually try to use formalin/formaldehyde as a treatment? I've never heard anyone mention it.

Formalin presents multiple acute and chronic toxicity issues to both animals and humans. First and foremost, to humans it is a known carcinogen, so it should be handled with appropriate PPE. For organisms other than humans, formalin is acutely toxic to a wide variety of organisms at relatively low concentrations. For example, formalin is acutely toxic to carp at 100 ppm. This is just one example of formalin toxicity - there are hundreds of studies on formalin toxicity. There are many chronic issues with it's use ...

I deal with formalin on a daily basis and use it for the preservation of samples in the lab. I can't imagine anyone thinking that it may be an available treatment for frog issues ...

For the sake of civility - I'll pass on commenting on Panacur.

Donn

I'm obviously missing something...what's the problem with Panacur?? Would Ivermectin be better???

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Re: Some Medications and Treatments used in the Dart Frog Ho

Postby Philsuma » Wed Jan 16, 2013 4:33 pm

Type the word 'Panacur" into the search block at the top right corner of the website here.

or...just do a search page by page in the "Hospital - Injuries, Disease and Treatments" subforums here for a thread title with the word 'Panacur" in it.

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Re: Some Medications and Treatments used in the Dart Frog Ho

Postby RichFrye » Wed Jan 16, 2013 4:38 pm

Judy S wrote:
edwardsatc wrote:Phil,

Does anyone actually try to use formalin/formaldehyde as a treatment? I've never heard anyone mention it.

Formalin presents multiple acute and chronic toxicity issues to both animals and humans. First and foremost, to humans it is a known carcinogen, so it should be handled with appropriate PPE. For organisms other than humans, formalin is acutely toxic to a wide variety of organisms at relatively low concentrations. For example, formalin is acutely toxic to carp at 100 ppm. This is just one example of formalin toxicity - there are hundreds of studies on formalin toxicity. There are many chronic issues with it's use ...

I deal with formalin on a daily basis and use it for the preservation of samples in the lab. I can't imagine anyone thinking that it may be an available treatment for frog issues ...

For the sake of civility - I'll pass on commenting on Panacur.

Donn

I'm obviously missing something...what's the problem with Panacur?? Would Ivermectin be better???


It depends on the situation. Your amphibian vet can expound.
Darts with parasites are analogous to mixed tanks, there are no known benefits to the frogs with either.


If tone is more important to you than content, you are at the wrong place.

My new email address is rich.frye@icloud.com and new phone number is 773 577 3476


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